Resin flow in fiber preforms

[+] Author and Article Information
Serge Abrate

Department of Technology, Southern Illinois University, Carbondale, IL 62901-6603; abrate@engr.siu.edu

Appl. Mech. Rev 55(6), 579-599 (Oct 16, 2002) (21 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1506323 History: Online October 16, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Williams  C, Summerscales  J, and Grove  S (1996), Resin infusion under flexible tooling (RIFT): A review, Composites, Part A 27, 517–524.
Hourng  L and Chang  CY (1993), Numerical simulation of resin injection molding in molds with preplaced fiber mats, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 12(10), 1081–1095.
Pham  XT and Trochu  F (1999), Simulation of compression resin transfer molding to manufacture thin composite shells, Polym. Compos. 20(3), 436–456.
Pham  XT, Trochu  F, and Gauvin  R (1998), Simulation of compression resin transfer molding with displacement control, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 17(17), 1525–1556.
Boccard  A, Lee  WI, and Springer  GS (1995), Model for determining the vent locations and the fill time of resin transfer molds, J. Compos. Mater. 29(3), 306–333.
Tucker  CL (1996), Heat transfer and reaction issues in liquid composite molding, Polym. Compos. 17(1), 60–72.
D’Arcy H (1856), Les Fontaines Publiques de la ville de Dijon. Dalmont, Paris.
Chui  WK, Glimm  J, Tangerman  FM, Jardine  AP, Madsen  JS, Donnellan  TM, and Leek  R (1997), Process modeling in resin transfer molding as a method to enhance product quality, SIAM Rev. 39(4), 714–727.
Gauvin  R, Kerachni  A, and Fisa  B (1994), Variation of mat surface density and its effect on permeability evaluation for RTM modeling, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 13(4), 371–383.
Young  WB (1994), Three-dimensional nonisothermal mold filling simulations in resin transfer molding, Polym. Compos. 15(2), 118–127.
Chang  W and Kikuchi  N (1995), Analysis of non-isothermal mold filling process in resin transfer molding (RTM) and structural reaction injection molding (SRIM), Computational Mech., Berlin 16(1), 22–35.
Yoo  YE and Lee  WII (1996), Numerical simulation of the resin transfer mold filling process using the boundary element method, Polym. Compos. 17(3), 368–374.
Um  MK and Lee  SK (1999), A study on the determination of in-plane permeability of fiber performs, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 20(6), 771–779.
Sadiq  T, Advani  S, and Parnas  R (1995), Experimental investigation of transverse flow through aligned cylinders, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 21, 755–774.
Ferland  P, Guittard  D, and Trochu  F (1996), Concurrent methods for permeability measurement in resin transfer molding, Polym. Compos. 17(1), 149–158.
Mogavero  J and Advani  SG (1997), Experimental investigation of flow through multi-layered performs, Polym. Compos. 18(5), 649–655.
Bickerton  S, Sozer  EM, Graham  PJ, and Advani  SG (2000), Fabric structure and mold curvature effects on preform permeability and mold filling in the RTM process, Part I: Experiments, Composites, Part A 31(5), 423–438.
Kim YR, McCarthy SP, Fanucci JP, Nolet SC, and Koppernaes C (1990), Resin flow through fiber reinforcements during composite processing, Proc of 22nd Int SAMPE Tech Conf, 709–723.
Young  WB and Wu  SF (1995), Permeability measurement of bi-directional woven glass fibers, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 14(10), 1108–1120.
Lai  CL and Young  WB (1997), Model resin permeation of fiber reinforcements after shear deformation, Polym. Compos. 18(5), 642–648.
Daniel IM, Um MK, Childs BW, and Kim DH (2000), Permeability and resin flow measurements and simulations in composite performs, Proc of 45th Int SAMPE Symp 761–775.
Patel  N, Rohatgi  V, and Lee  LJ (1995), Micro scale flow behavior and void formation mechanism during impregnation through a unidirectional stitched fiberglass mat, Polym. Eng. Sci. 35(10), 837–851.
Lai  YH, Khomami  B, and Kardos  JL (1997), Accurate permeability characterization of preforms used in polymer matrix composite fabrication processes, Polym. Compos. 18(3), 368–377.
Han  K, Lee  B, and Rice  B (2000), Permeability measurements of fiber preforms and applications, Compos. Sci. Technol. 60, 2435–2441.
Calhoun  DR, Yalvac  S, Wetters  DG, Wu  CH, Wang  TJ, Tsai  JS, and Lee  LJ (1996), Old filling analysis in resin transfer molding, Polym. Compos. 17(2), 251–264.
Sun  X, Li  S, and Lee  LJ (1998), Mold filling analysis in vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding. Part I: SCRIMP based on a High-Permeable medium, Polym. Compos. 19(6), 807–817.
Bruschke  MV and Advani  SG (1991), RTM: Filling simulation of complex three dimensional shell-like structures, SAMPE Q. 23(1), 2–11.
Steenkamer  DA, McKnight  SH, Wilkins  DJ, and Karbhari  VM (1995), Experimental characterization of permeability and fibre wetting in liquid molding, J. Mater. Sci. 30(12), 3207–3215.
Cai  Z (1992), Analysis of mold filling in RTM process, J. Compos. Mater. 26(9), 1310–1337.
Cai  Z (1992), Simplified mold filling simulation in resin transfer molding, J. Compos. Mater. 26(17), 2606–2630.
Weitzenbock  JR, Shenoi  RA, and Wilson  PA (1998), Measurement of principal permeability with the channel flow experiment, Polym. Compos. 20(2), 321–335.
Gauvin  R and Trochu  F (1998), Key issues in numerical simulation for liquid composite molding processes, Polym. Compos. 19(3), 233–240.
Adams  KL, Russel  WB, and Rebenfeld  L (1988), Radial penetration of a viscous liquid into a planar anisotropic porous medium, Int. J. Multiphase Flow 14(2), 203–215.
Shih  CH and Lee  LJ (1998), Effect of fiber architecture on permeability in liquid composite molding, Polym. Compos.19(5), 626–639.
Lekakou  C, Johari  MAK, Norman  D, and Bader  MG (1996), Measurement techniques and effects on in-plane permeability of woven cloths in resin transfer moulding, Composites, Part A 27(5), 401–408.
Chan  AW and Hwang  ST (1991), Anisotropic in-plane permeability of fabric media, Polym. Eng. Sci. 31(16), 1233–1339.
Parnas  RS, Howard  JG, Luce  TL, and Advani  SG (1995), Permeability characterization, Part 1: A proposed standard reference fabric for permeability, Polym. Compos. 16(6), 429–445..
Woerdeman  DL, Phelan  FR, and Parnas  RS (1995), Interpretation of 3-D permeability measurements for RTM modeling, Polym. Compos. 16(6), 470–480.
Gauvin  R, Trochu  F, Lemenn  Y, and Diallo  L (1996), Permeability measurement and flow simulation through fiber reinforcement, Polym. Compos. 17(1), 34–42.
Hammami  A, Trochu  F, Gauvin  R, and Wirth  S (1996), Directional permeability measurement of deformed reinforcement, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 15(6), 552–562.
Carter  EJ, Fell  AW, Griffin  PR, and Summerscales  JA (1996), Data validation procedures for the automated determination of the two-dimensional permeability tensor of a fabric reinforcement, Composites, Part A 27A, 355–361.
Lundstrom  TS, Stenberg  R, Bergstrom  R, Partanen  H, and Birkeland  PA (2000), In-plane permeability measurements: A nordic round-robin study, Composites, Part A 31, 29–43.
Weitzenbock  JR, Shenoi  RA, and Wilson  PA (1999), Radial flow permeability measurement. Part A: Theory, Composites, Part A 30(6), 781–796.
Weitzenbock  JR, Shenoi  RA, and Wilson  PA (1999), Radial flow permeability measurement, Part B: Application, Composites, Part A 30(6), 797–813.
Adams  KL and Rebenfeld  L (1991), Permeability characteristics of multilayer fiber reinforcements, Part 1: Experimental observations, Polym. Compos. 12(3), 179–185.
Parnas  RS and Salem  AJ (1993), A comparison of the unidirectional and radial in-plane flow of fluids through woven composite reinforcements, Polym. Compos. 14(5), 383–394.
Wu  CH, Wang  TJ, and Lee  LJ (1994), Trans-plane fluid permeability measurement and its applications in liquid composite molding, Polym. Compos. 15(4), 289–298.
Ahn  KJ, Seferis  JC, and Berg  JC (1991), Simultaneous measurements of permeability and capillary pressure of thermosetting matrices in woven fabric reinforcements, Polym. Compos. 12(3), 146–152.
Athanasiadis D and Sol H (1998), Identification of the permeability properties of a fiber reinforcement in the RTM process by a mixed numerical/experimental method, Proc of Int Conf Computer Methods in Composite Materials CADCOMP’98, 1998 Montreal, Canada, 169–179.
Weitzenbock  JR, Shenoi  RA, and Wilson  PA (1998), Measurement of three-dimensional permeability, Composites, Part A 29, 159–169.
Gebart  BR (1992), Permeability of unidirectional reinforcements for RTM, J. Compos. Mater. 26(8), 1100–1133.
Astroem  BT, Pipes  RB, and Advani  SG (1992), On flow through aligned fiber beds and its application to composites processing, J. Compos. Mater. 26(9), 1351–1373.
Gebart  BR and Lidstrom  P (1996), Measurement of in-plane permeability of anisotropic fiber reinforcements, Polym. Compos. 17(1), 43–51.
Phelan  FR and Wise  G (1996), Analysis of transverse flow in aligned fibrous porous media, Composites, Part A 27(1), 25–34.
Lundstrom  TS (2000), The permeability of non-crimp stitched fabrics, Composites, Part A 31, 1345–1353.
Young  WB (1996), Consolidation and cure simulations for laminated composites, Polym. Compos. 17(1), 142–148.
Van der Westhuizen  J and Prieur du Plessis  J (1996), An attempt to quantify fibre bed permeability utilizing the phase average Navier-Stokes equation, Composites, Part A 27A, 135–141.
Cai  Z and Berdichevsky  AL (1993), An improved self-consistent method for estimating the permeability of a fibre assembly, Polym. Compos. 14(4), 314–323.
Bielefield M (1994), Fabrication of braided RTM driveshaft tubes for the RAH-66 Comanche, Annual Forum Proc, Am Helicopter Soc 2 , 1001–1015.
Bruschke  MV and Advani  SG (1993), Flow of generalized Newtonian fluids across a periodic array of cylinders, J. Rheol. 37, 479–498.
Cai Z (1993), Non-darcy flow through fibrous media, Proc of 25th Int SAMPE Tech Conf 294–304.
Cai  Z (1995), Analysis of the non-viscous flow effect in liquid molding process, J. Compos. Mater. 29(2), 257–278.
Skartsis  L, Khomami  B, and Kardos  JL (1992), Polymeric flow through fibrous media, J. Rheol. 36(4), 589–620.
Wu  CJ, Hourng  LW, and Liao  JC (1995), Numerical and experimental study on the edge effect of resin transfer molding, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 14(7), 694–722.
Lebrun  G, Rudd  CD, and Gauvin  R (1995), Laminate temperature distributions and filling time prediction during non-isothermal impregnation of fibre preforms, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 14(10), 1069–1080.
Young  WB, Rupel  K, Han  K, Lee  LJ, and Liou  MJ (1991), Analysis of resin injection molding in molds with preplaced fiber mats, II: Numerical simulation and experiments of mold filling, Polym. Compos. 12(1), 30–37.
Jackson  GW and James  DF (1986), The permeability of fibrous porous media, Can. J. Chem. Eng. 64, 364–374.
Langmuir I (1942), Report of smokes and filters, Office of Scientific Research and Development No 865, Ser No 353, Filtration of aerosols and the development of filter materials, WH Rodebush et al. (eds).
Happel  J (1959), Viscous flow relative to arrays of cylinders, AIChE J. 5, 174–177.
Kawabara  S (1959), The forces experienced by randomly distributed parallel circular cylinders or spheres in a viscous flow at small Reynolds numbers, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 14, 527–432.
Cai  Z and Berdichevsky  AL (1993), Numerical simulation on the permeability variations of a fiber assembly, Polym. Compos. 14(6), 529–539.
Choi  MA, Lee  MH, Chang  J, and Lee  SJ (1998), Permeability modeling of fibrous media in composite processing, J. Non-Newtonian Fluid Mech. 79(2–3), 585–598.
Pillai KM, Luce TL, Bruschke RS, Parnas RS, and Advani SG (1993), Modeling the heterogeneities present in preforms during mold filling in RTM, Proc of 25th Int SAMPE Tech Conf 279–293.
Pillai  KM and Advani  SG (1995), Numerical and analytical study to estimate the effect of two length scales upon the permeability of a fibrous porous medium, Transp. Porous Media 21(1), 1–17.
Phelan Jr FP, Leung Y, and Parnas R (1994), Modeling of microscale flow in unidirectional fibrous porous media, Proc of 9th Am Soc for Composites Tech Conf 85–96.
Phelan  FR, Leung  Y, and Parnas  RS (1994), Modeling of microscale flow in unidirectional fibrous porous media, J Thermoplastic Compos. Mat. 7(3), 208–218.
Ranganathan  S, Phelan  FR, and Advani  SG (1996), Generalized model for the transverse fluid permeability in unidirectional fibrous media, Prog. Cryst. Growth Charact. Mater. 17(2), 222–230.
Binetruy  C, Hilaire  B, and Pabiot  J (1997), The interaction between flows occuring inside and outside fiber tows duing RTM, Compos. Sci. Technol. 57, 587–596.
Gauvin  R and Chibani  M (1990), A study of permeability of non-woven reinforcements in composite molding, SAMPE Q. 21(3), 52–58.
Chen J, Jayaraman K, and Dhaubhadel MN (1994), Prediction of permeation through periodic three dimensional fiber arrays, Advances in Finite Element Analysis in Fluid Dynamics ASME Pub. FED-Vol 200, 29–40.
Simacek  P and Advani  SG (1996), Permeability model for a woven fabric, Polym. Compos. 17(6), 887–899.
Bickerton  S, Sozer  EM, Simácek  P, and Advani  SG (2000), Fabric structure and mold curvature effects on preform permeability and mold filling in the RTM process, Part II: Predictions and comparisons with experiments, Composites, Part A 31(5), 439–458.
Yu  B and Lee  LJ (2000), A simplified in-plane permeability model for textile fabrics, Polym. Compos. 21(5), 660–685.
Young  WB, Han  K, Fong  LH, Lee  J, and Liou  MJ (1991), Flow simulation in molds with preplaced fiber mats, Polym. Compos. 12(6), 391–403.
Bruschke MV, Luce TL, and Advani SG (1992), Effective in-plane permeability of multi-layered RTM performs, Proc of 7th Am Soc for Composites Tech Conf 103–112.
Mogavero J and Advani SG (1996), Permeability: A key to successful modeling of the RTM Process, Proc of 41st Int SAMPE Symp 1503–1510.
Diallo  ML, Gauvin  R, and Trochu  F (1998), Experimental analysis and simulation of flow through multi-layer fiber reinforcements in liquid composite molding, Polym. Compos. 19(3), 246–256.
Rudd  CD, Long  AC, McGeehin  P, and Smith  P (1996), In-plane permeability determination for simulation of liquid composite molding of complex shapes, Polym. Compos. 17(1), 52–59.
Adams  KL, and Rebenfeld  L (1991), Permeability characteristics of multilayer fiber reinforcements, Part II: Theoretical model, Polym. Compos. 12(3), 186–190.
Calado  VMA and Advani  SG (1996), Effective average permeability of multi-layer performs in resin transfer molding, Compos. Sci. Technol. 56(5), 519–531.
Luce  TL, Advani  SG, Howard  JG, and Parnas  RS (1995), Permeability characterization, Part 2: Flow behavior in multiple-layer Polym. Compos. 16(6), 446–458.
Young  WB and Lai  CL (1997), Analysis of the edge effect in resin transfer molding, Composites, Part A 28, 817–822.
Bickerton S and Advani SG (1995), Characterization of corner and edge permeabilities during mold filling in resin transfer molding, ASME, Materials Division (Publication) MD Recent Advances in Composite Materials, Proc of 1995 Joint ASME App Mech and Mat Summer Meeting, Jun 28–30 1995, Los Angeles, 56 , 143–150.
Ni  J, Zhao  Y, Lee  LJ, and Nakamura  S (1997), Analysis of two-regional flow in liquid composite molding, Polym. Compos. 18(2), 254–269.
Hammami  A, Gauvin  R, and Trochu  F (1998), Modeling the edge effect in liquid composites molding, Composites, Part A 29, 603–609.
Sheard  J, Senft  V, Mantell  SC, Vogel  JH, and Maier  RS (1998), Determination of corner and edge permeability in resin transfer molding, Polym. Compos. 19(1), 96–105.
Han K, Wu CH, and Lee LJ (1993), Characterization and simulation of resin transfer molding: Race tracking and dry spot formation Proc of 9th Annual ASM/ESD Advanced Composites Conf, Dearborn, MI, Nov 1993, 19–36.
Dungan  FD, Senoguz  MT, Sastry  AM, and Fallaci  DA (1999), On the use of Darcy permeability in sheared fabrics, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 18(5) 472–484.
Lai  CL and Young  WB (1999), The effects of preforming induced variable permeabilities on the RTM molding flow, Polym. Compos. 20(2), 225–239.
Gutowski TG, Wineman SJ, and Cai Z (1986), Applications of the resin flow/fiber deformation model, Proc of 33rd Nat SAMPE Symp, 245–254.
Robitaille  F and Gauvin  R (1999), Compaction of textile reinforcement for composites manufacturing III: Reorganization of the fiber network, Polym. Compos. 20(1), 48–61.
Trevino  L, Rupel  K, Young  WB, Liou  MJ, and Lee  LJ (1991), Analysis of resin injection molding in molds with replaced fiber mats, I: Permeability and compressibility measurements, Polym. Compos. 12(1), 20–29.
Rudd  CD, Rice  EV, Bulmer  LJ, and Long  AC (1993), Process modelling and design for resin transfer moulding, Plast. Rubber Composites Process. Applic. 20(2), 67–76.
Gong  H (1993), Pressure distribution in resin transfer molding with a non-rigid fiber perform, J. Mater. Process. Technol. 37(1–4), 363–371.
Farina  A and Preziosi  L (2000), Non-isothermal injection molding with resin cure and perform deformability, Composites, Part A 31, 1355–1372.
Ambrosi  D and Preziosi  L (1998), Modeling matrix injection through porous performs, Composites, Part A 29, 5–18.
Ambrosi  D and Preziosi  L (2000), Modeling injection molding processes with deformable porous performs, SIAM (Soc. Ind. Appl. Math.) J. Appl. Math, 61(1), 22–42.
Han  K, Lee  LJ, and Liou  M (1993), Fiber mat deformation in liquid molding II: Modeling, Polym. Compos. 14(2), 151–160.
Parnas  RS, Schultheisz  CR, and Ranganathan  S (1996), Hydrodynamically induced perform deformation, Polym. Compos. 17(1), 4–10.
Liu  B, Bickerton  S, and Advani  SG (1996), Modeling and simulation of RTM: gate control, venting and dry spot prediction, Composites, Part A 27, 135–141.
Patel N and Lee LJ (1994), Effect of capillary pressure on mold filling and fiber wetting in liquid composite molding, Proc of 10th Annual ASMESD Advanced Composites Conf, Dearborn, MI, Nov 1994, 325–333.
Patel  N and Lee  LJ (1995), Effects of fiber mat architecture on void formation and removal in liquid composite molding, Polym. Compos. 16(5), 386–399.
Lekakou  C and Bader  MG (1998), Mathematical modeling of macro- and micro-infiltration in resin transfer moulding (RTM), Composites, Part A 29, 29–37.
Sadiq T, Parnas R, and Advani S (1992), Experimental investigation of flow in resin transfer molding, Proc of 24th Int SAMPE Tech Conf, 24 , 660–674
Kang  MK, Lee  WI, and Hahn  HT (2000), Formation of microvoids during resin-transfer molding process, Compos. Sci. Technol. 60(12–13), 2427–2434.
Parnas  RS, Salem  AJ, Sadik  TAK, Wang  HP, and Advani  SG (1994), The interaction between micro-and macro-scopic flow in RTM performs, Comput. Struct. 27(1/2), 93–107.
Chang  CA and Hourng  LW (1998), Study on void formation in resin transfer molding, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38(5), 809–817.
Rohatgi  V, Patel  N, and Lee  JL (1996), Experimental investigation of flow-induced microvoids during impregnation of unidirectional stitched fiberglass mat, Polym. Compos. 17(2), 161–170.
Michaeli W and Dyckhoff J (1994), Production of fibre reinforced components with high surface quality using a modified RTM technique, Proc of 39th Int SAMPE Symp, 145–153.
Lundstrom S (1994), Void formation and transport in the RTM process, Proc of 39th Int SAMPE Symp, 108–119.
Lundstrum  TS and Gebart  BR (1994), Influence from different process parameters on void formation in resin transfer molding, Polym. Compos. 15(1), 25–33.
Mal  O, Couniot  A, and Dupret  F (1998), Non-isothermal simulation of the resin transfer moulding process, Composites, Part A 29, 189–198.
Wang  TJ, Lin  RJ, and Lee  LJ (1995), Tool heat transfer analysis in resin transfer molding, Int. Polym. Process. 10(4), 364–373.
Texier  C, Taha  M, Maazouz  A, and Pascault  JP (1998), Kinetic and rheological relationships of dicyanate ester polycondensation for the resin transfer molding process, Polym. Eng. Sci. 37(7), 1238–1246.
Castro  JM and Macosko  CW (1982), Studies of mold filling and curing in the reaction injection molding process, AIChE J. 28(2), 250–260.
Kang  MK and Lee  WI (1999), A flow front refinement technique for the numerical simulation of the resin-transfer molding process, Compos. Sci. Technol. 59, 1663–1674.
Kang  MK, Jung  JJ, and Lee  WI (2000), Analysis of resin transfer moulding process with controlled multiple gates resin injection, Composites, Part A 31, 407–422.
Yousefi  A, Lafleur  PG, and Gauvin  R (1997), Kinetic studies of thermoset cure reactions: A review, Polym. Compos. 18(2), 157–168.
Dessenberger RB and Tucker CL III (1994), Thermal dispersion in resin transfer molding, ASME Publ MD 49, Advances in CAE of Polymer Processing 21–40.
Dessemberger  RB and Tucker  CL (1995), Thermal dispersion in resin transfer molding, Polym. Compos. 16(6), 495–506.
Lebrun  G and Gauvin  R (1995), Heat transfer analysis in a heated mold during the impregnation phase of the resin transfer molding process, J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci. 4(2), 81–104.
Raper  KS, Roux  JA, McCarty  TA, and Vaughan  JG (1997), Investigation of the pressure behavior in a pultrusion die for fiberglass/epoxy composites, J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci. 6, 27–37.
Raper  KS, Roux  JA, McCarty  TA, and Vaughan  JG (1999), Investigation of the pressure behavior in a pultrusion die for graphite/epoxy composites, Composites, Part A 30, 1123–1132.
Raper  KS, Roux  JA, Vaughan  JG, and Lackey  E (1999), Permeability impact on the pressure rise in a pultrusion die, J. Thermophys. Heat Transfer 13(1), 91–99.
Sharma  D, McCarty  TA, Roux  JA, and Vaughan  JG (1998), Fluid mechanics analysis of a two-dimensional pultrusion die inlet, Polym. Eng. Sci. 38(10), 1611–1622.
Sharma  D, McCarty  TA, Roux  JA, and Vaughan  JG (1998), Pultrusion die pressure response to changes in die inlet geometry, Polym. Compos. 19(2), 180–192.
Gadam  SUK, Roux  JA, McCarty  TA, and Vaughan  JG (2000), The impact of pultrusion processing parameters on resin pressure rise inside a tapered cylindrical die for glass-fiber/epoxy composites, Compos. Sci. Technol. 60, 945–958.
Gorthala  R, Roux  JA, and Vaughan  JG (1994), Resin flow, cure and heat transfer analysis for pultrusion process, J. Compos. Mater. 28(6), 486–506.
Liu  XL, Crouch  IG, and Lam  YC (2000), Simulation of heat transfer and cure in pultrusion with a general-purpose finite element package, Compos. Sci. Technol. 60, 857–864.
Liu  XL (2001), Numerical modeling on pultrusion of composite I beam, Composites, Part A 32(5), 663–681.
Roux  JA, Vaughan  JG, Shanku  R, Arafat  ES, Bruce  JL, and Johnson  VR (1998), Comparison of measurements and modeling for pultrusion of a fiberglass/epoxy I-beam, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 17(17), 1557–1578.
Gorthala R, Roux JA, Vaughan JG, Donti RP, and Hassouneh A (1992), Impact of kinetic parameters on heat transfer modeling for a pultrusion process, Proc of 37th Int SAMPE Symp, 1117–1131.
Hackett  RM and Zhu  SZ (1992), Two-dimensional finite element model of the pultrusion process, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 11(12), 1322–1351.
Chachad  YR, Roux  JA, Vaughan  JG, and Arafat  ES (1996), Manufacturing model for three-dimensional irregular pultruded graphite/epoxy composites, Composites, Part A 27, 201–210.
Chachad  YR, Roux  JA, Vaughan  JG, and Arafat  ES (1995), Three-dimensional characterization of pultruded fiberglass-epoxy composite materials, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 14(5), 495–513.
Voorakaranam  S, Joseph  B, and Kardos  JL (1999), Modeling and control of an injection pultrusion process, J. Compos. Mater. 33(13), 1173–1204.
Kommu  S, Khomami  B, and Kardos  JL (1998), Modeling of injected pultrusion processes: A numerical approach, Polym. Compos. 19(4), 335–346.
Mustafa  I, Khomami  B, and Kardos  JL (1999), 3-D nonisothermal flow simulation model for injected pultrusion processes, AIChE J. 45(1), 151–163.
Ding  Z, Li  S, Yang  H, Lee  LJ, Engelen  H, and Puckett  PM (2000), Numerical and experimental analysis of resin flow and cure in resin injection pultrusion (RIP), Polym. Compos. 21(5), 762–778.
Larock  JA, Hahn  HT, and Evans  DJ (1989), Pultrusion processes for thermoplastic composites, J Thermoplastic Composites 2, 216–229.
Michaeli  W and Biaurock  J (1996), Pultrusion of endless fibre reinforced profiles with thermoplastic matrix systems, Eng. Plast. 9(4), 282–292.
Carlsson A and Astrom BT (1996), Modelling of heat transfer and crystallization kinetics in thermoplastic pultrusion, Proc of 41st Int SAMPE Symp 1324–1334.
Carlsson  A and Astrom  TB (1998), Modeling of heat transfer and crystallization kinetics in thermoplastic composites manufacturing: Pultrusion, Polym. Compos. 19(4), 352–359.
Ruan Y and Liu JC (1992), Development of a two-dimensional thermal model for the steady state thermoplastic pultrusion process, Proc of 37th Int SAMPE Symp, March 1992, 1432–1444.
Ruan  Y and Liu  JC (1994), A steady state heat transfer model for fiber-reinforced-thermoplastic pultrusion processes using the finite element method, J. Mater. Process. Manuf. Sci. 3, 91–113.
Aylward  L, Douglas  C, and Roylance  D (1985), Transient finite element model for pultrusion processing, Polymer Process Eng. 3(3), 247–261.
Kozak R and O’Toole B (1996), Design of an experimental thermoplastic pultrusion facility, Proc of 41st Int SAMPE, 1678–1687.
Kerbiriou  V and Friedrich  K (1999), Pultrusion of thermoplastic composites: process optimization and mathematical modeling, J Thermoplastic Composite Materials 12(2), 96–120.
Lee  WI, Spinger  GS, and Smith  FN (1991), Pultrusion of thermoplastics—A model, J. Compos. Mater. 25, 1632–1652.
Blaurock J and Michaeli W (1997), Calculation of the pulling force in the thermoplastic pultrusion process, Proc of 42nd Int SAMPE Symp, 1414–1425.
Astrom  BT and Pipes  RB (1991), Modeling of a thermoplastic pultrusion process, Sampre Q. 22(4), 55–64.
Astrom  BT and Pipes  RB (1993), A modeling approach to thermoplastic pultrusion 1: formulation of models, Polym. Compos. 14(3), 173–183.
Blest  DC, McKee  S, Zulkifle  AK, and Marshall  P (1999), Curing simulation by autoclave resin infusion, Compos. Sci. Technol. 59, 2297–2313.
Caba AC, Loos AC, Rattazzi D, and Batra RC (1998), Three-dimensional simulation model of the resin film infusion manufacturing process, Proc of 30th Int SAMPE Tech Conf 329–340.
Caba  AC, Rattazzi  D, Batra  RC, and Loos  AC (1999), Verification of a simulation model for resin film infusion of complex shaped composite structures, J. Reinf. Plast. Compos. 18(6), 1465–1478.


Grahic Jump Location
Interactions between resin flow, heat transfer, and curing reaction in many thermoset composite manufacturing processes
Grahic Jump Location
Variations of the three components of the 2D permeability tensor as a function of the orientation angle
Grahic Jump Location
Channel flow apparatus for measuring perform permeability: a) moving flow front approach and b) saturated flow approach
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of apparent permeability with the orientation angle in channel flow experiment
Grahic Jump Location
Selection specimens for determining permeability tensor of arbitrary preform
Grahic Jump Location
Evolution of the length of the semi-axes of the elliptical flow front for a constant pressure test and a variable pressure test
Grahic Jump Location
Axes of ellipse in radial flow experiment under constant pressure 13
Grahic Jump Location
Plot of the left-hand-side of Eq. (38) versus time to determine the permeability of an orthotropic fabric
Grahic Jump Location
Radial flow in fabric preforms: a) isotropic preform; b) orthotropic preform; and c) orthotrropic preform at arbitrary orientation
Grahic Jump Location
Predictions of transverse permeability of unidirectional fiber bed with square packing by the Carman-Kozeny and other equations
Grahic Jump Location
Periodic array of fibers: a) square packing; and b) unit cell for computational model
Grahic Jump Location
Bubble formation during transverse flow
Grahic Jump Location
Periodic elliptical bundles showing different permeabilities inside the tows and in the inter-tow channels
Grahic Jump Location
Change of principal directions due to preform deformation
Grahic Jump Location
Deformation due to inlet pressure
Grahic Jump Location
Micro-void formation during flow in the fiber direction
Grahic Jump Location
Microvoid formation caused by different layers being used: a) higher permeability for the outside layer causes air voids in the laminate; and b) lower permeability on the outside layer causes pinholes on the surface
Grahic Jump Location
Geometry of pultrusion model




Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In