0
REVIEW ARTICLES

Spatial variation of seismic ground motions: An overview

[+] Author and Article Information
Aspasia Zerva

Department of Civil and Architectural Engineering, Drexel University, Philadelphia PA 19104; aspa@drexel.edu

Vassilios Zervas

Deceased

Appl. Mech. Rev 55(3), 271-297 (Jun 10, 2002) (27 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1458013 History: Online June 10, 2002
Copyright © 2002 by ASME
Topics: Motion
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Saxena V, Deodatis G, and Shinozuka M (2000), Effect of spatial variation of earthquake ground motion on the nonlinear dynamic response of highway bridges, Proc of 12th World Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Berrah  MK and Kausel  E (1993), A modal combination rule for spatially varying seismic motions, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn.22, 791–800.
Der Kiureghian A, Keshishian P, and Hakobian A (1997), Multiple support response spectrum analysis of bridges including the site response effect and the MSRS code, Earthquake Engineering Research Center Report No. UCB/EERC-97/02, Univ of California, Berkeley CA.
Der Kiureghian  A and Neuenhofer  A (1992), Response spectrum method for multiple support seismic excitation, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 21, 713–740.
Zerva  A (1992), Seismic loads predicted by spatial variability models, Struct. Safety 11, 227–243.
Earthquake Engineering Research Institute, (1999) Research needs emerging from recent earthquakes, Recommendations from a Workshop organized by the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute for the National Science Foundation, EERI, San Francisco CA.
Abrahamson NA (1993), Spatial variation of multiple supports inputs, Proc of 1st US Seminar on Seismic Evaluation and Retrofit of Steel Bridges, A Caltrans and Univ. of California at Berkeley Seminar, San Francisco CA.
Deodatis G, Saxena V, and Shinozuka M (2000), Effect of Spatial Variability of Ground Motion on Bridge Fragility Curves, Proc of 8th Specialty Conf on Probabilistic Mechanics and Structural Reliability, Univ of Notre Dame, IN.
Kanda K (2000), Seismic responses of structures subjected to incident incoherent waves considering a layered media with irregular interfaces, Proc of 12th World Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Náprstek J and Fischer C (2000), Analysis of non-stationary response of structures due to seismic random processes of evolutionary type, Proc of 12th World Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Auckland, New Zealand.
Bogdanoff  JL, Goldberg  JE, and Schiff  AJ (1965), The effect of ground transmission time on the response of long structures, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 55, 627–640.
Nelson I and Weidlinger P (1977), Development of interference response spectra for lifelines seismic analysis, Grant Report No. 2, Weidlinger Associates, New York.
Sandi H (1970), Conventional seismic forces corresponding to non-synchronous ground motion, Proc of 3rd European Symp Earthquake Engineering, Sofia, Bulgaria.
Spudich  P and Cranswick  E (1984), Direct observation of rupture propagation during the 1979 Imperial Valley earthquake using a short baseline accelerometer array, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am.74, 2083–2114.
Bolt BA, Loh CH, Penzien J, Tsai YB, and Yeh YT (1982), Preliminary report on the SMART-1 strong motion array in Taiwan, Earthquake Engineering Research Center Report No. UCB/EERC-82/13, Univ of California, Berkeley CA.
Harada T (1984), Probabilistic modeling of spatial variation of strong earthquake ground displacement, Proc of 8th World Conf on Earthquake Engineering, San Francisco CA.
Loh  CH, Penzien  J, and Tsai  YB (1982), Engineering Analysis of SMART-1 array accelerograms, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn.10, 575–591.
Abrahamson  NA, Bolt  BA, Darragh  RB, Penzien  J, and Tsai  YB (1987), The SMART-1 accelerograph array (1980-1987): A review, Earthquake Spectra 3, 263–287.
Abrahamson  NA, Schneider  JF, and Stepp  JC (1991), Empirical spatial coherency functions for applications to soil-structure interaction analyses, Earthquake Spectra 7, 1–27.
Schneider JF, Stepp JC, and Abrahamson NA (1992), The spatial variation of earthquake ground motion and effects of local site conditions, Proc of 10th World Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Madrid, Spain.
Spudich  P, Hellweg  M, and Lee  WHK (1996), Directional topographic site response at Tarzana observed in aftershocks of the 1994 Northridge, California, earthquake: Implications for main shock motions, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 86, 193–208.
Meremonte  M, Frankel  A, Cranswick  E, Carver  D, and Worly  D (1996), Urban Seismology-Northridge aftershocks recorded by multi-scale arrays of portable digital seismographs, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 86, 1350–1363.
Frankel  A, Hough  S, Friberg  P, and Busby  R (1991), Observations of Loma Prieta aftershocks from a dense array in Sunnyvale, California Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 81, 1900–1922.
Katayama  T (1991), Use of dense array data in the determination of engineering properties of strong motions, Struct. Safety10, 27–51.
Nechtschein S, Bard PY, Gariel JC, Meneroud JP, Dervin P, Cushing M, Gaubert C, Vidal S, and Duval AM (1995), A topographic effect study in the Nice Region, Proc of 5th Int Conf on Seismic Zonation, Nice, France.
Pitilakis K, Hatzidimitriou D, Bard PY, Manos G, and Jongmans D (1994), Euroseistest, Volvi, Thessaloniki: a European test site for engineering seismology, earthquake engineering and seismology, Proc of 2nd Int Conf on Earthquake Resistant Design, Berlin, Germany.
Bongiovanni G, Marsan P, and Romeo RW (1995), Combined geological and geophysical investigations for site effect analysis in seismic zoning perspective, Proc of 5th Int Conf on Seismic Zonation, Nice, France.
Zerva A (2000), Spatial Variability of Seismic Motions Recorded Over Extended Ground Surface Areas, Wave Motion in Earthquake Engineering, E Kausel and GD Manolis (eds), Volume in the Series Advances in Earthquake Engineering, WIT Press.
Harichandran  RS (1991), Estimating the spatial variation of earthquake ground motion from dense array recordings, Struct. Safety10, 219–233.
Jenkins GW and Watts DG (1969), Spectral Analysis and Its Applications, Holden-Day, San Francisco CA.
Kanai  K (1957), Semi-empirical formula for the seismic characteristics of the ground, Bull. of Earthquake Research Inst., Univ of Tokyo, Japan, 35, 309–325.
Tajimi H (1960), A statistical method of determining the maximum response of a building structure during an earthquake, Proc of 2nd World Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo and Kyoto, Japan.
Clough RW and Penzien J (1975), Dynamics of Structures, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Hindy  A and Novak  M (1980), Response of pipelines to random ground motion, J. Eng. Mech. Div. 106, 339–360.
Ellingwood BR and Batts ME (1982), Characterization of earthquake forces for probability-based design of nuclear structures, Tech Report BNL-NUREG-51587, NUREG/CR-2945, Dept of Nuclear Energy, Brookhaven National Lab, NY.
Joyner WB and Boore DM (1988), Measurement, characterization and prediction of strong ground motion, Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics II-Recent Advances in Ground Motion Evaluation, JL Von Thun (ed), Geotechnical Special Pub No. 20, ASCE, New York.
Harichandran  RS and Vanmarcke  EH (1986), Stochastic variation of earthquake ground motion in space and time, J. Eng. Mech. Div. 112, 154–174.
Vanmarcke EH (1983), Random Fields. Analysis and Synthesis, MIT Press, Cambridge MA.
Spudich P and Oppenheimer D (1986), Dense seismograph array observations of earthquake rupture dynamics, Earthquake Source Mechanics, Geophysical Monograph 37, S Das, J Boatwright, and CH Scholz (eds), American Geophysical Union, Washington DC.
Newland DE (1984), An Introduction to Random Vibrations and Spectral Analysis, Longman Inc, New York.
Spudich P (1994), Recent seismological insights into the spatial variation of earthquake ground motions, New Developments in Earthquake Ground Motion Estimation and Implications for Engineering Design Practice, ATC 35-1.
Abrahamson NA (1992), Generation of spatially incoherent strong motion time histories, Proc of 10th World Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Madrid, Spain.
Zerva A and Beck JL (1999), Updating stochastic models for spatially variable seismic ground motions, Proc of Int Conf on Applications of Statistics and Probability, ICASP⋅8, Sydney, Australia.
Abrahamson NA and Schneider J (1988), Spatial coherency of shear waves from the lotung large-scale seismic experiment, Proc of Int Workshop on Spatial Variation of Earthquake Ground Motion, Princeton Univ, Dunwalke NJ.
Bard PY (1995), Seismic input motion for large structures, 18ieme Seminaire Regional Europeen de Génie Parasismique, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, France.
Hoshiya  M and Ishii  K (1983), Evaluation of kinematic interaction of soil-foundation systems by a stochastic model, Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng. 2, 128–134.
Ramadan O and Novak M (1993), Coherency functions for spatially correlated seismic ground motions, Geotechnical Research Center Report No. GEOT-9-93, Univ of Western Ontario, London, Canada.
O’Rourke  MJ, Castro  G, and Centola  N (1980), Effects of seismic wave propagation upon buried pipelines, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 8, 455–467.
Abrahamson NA and Bolt BA (1987), Array analysis and synthesis mapping of strong seismic motion, Seismic Strong Motion Synthetics, BA Bolt (ed), Academic Press Inc.
Capon  J (1969), High-resolution frequency-wavenumber spectrum analysis, Proc. IEEE 57, 1408–1418.
Goldstein  P and Archuleta  RJ (1991), Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array: Theory and methods, J. Geophys. Res 96, 6173–6185.
Goldstein  P and Archuleta  RJ (1991), Deterministic frequency-wavenumber methods and direct measurements of rupture propagation during earthquakes using a dense array: Data Analysis, J. Geophys. Res. 96, 6187–6198.
Zerva  A and Zhang  O (1996), Estimation of signal characteristics in seismic ground motions, Probab. Eng. Mech. 11, 229–242.
Boissières  HP and Vanmarcke  EH (1995), Estimation of lags for a seismograph array: wave propagation and composite correlation, Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng. 14, 5–22.
Harichandran RS (1988), Local spatial variation of earthquake ground motion, Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics II-Recent Advances in Ground Motion Evaluation, JL Von Thun (ed), Geotechnical Special Pub No 20, ASCE, New York.
Rothman  DH (1985), Nonlinear inversion, statistical mechanics, and residual statics estimation, Geophysics 50, 2784–2796.
Rothman  DH (1986), Automatic estimation of large residual statics corrections, Geophysics 51, 332–346.
Der Kiureghian  A (1996), A coherency model for spatially varying ground motions, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 25, 99–111.
Novak M and Hindy A (1979), Seismic response of buried pipelines, 3rd Canadian Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Montreal Canada.
Werner SD and Lee LC (1979), The three-dimensional response of structures subjected to traveling wave excitation, Proc of 2nd US-Natl Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Stanford CA.
Bogdanoff  JL, Goldberg  JE, and Bernard  MC (1961), Response of a simple structure to a random earthquake-type disturbance, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 51, 293–310.
Loh  CH (1985), Analysis of the spatial variation of seismic waves and ground movements from SMART-1 data, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 13, 561–581.
Loh  CH and Yeh  YT (1988), Spatial variation and stochastic modeling of seismic differential ground movement, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 16, 583–596.
Loh  CH and Lin  SG (1990), Directionality and simulation in spatial variation of seismic waves, Eng. Struct. 12, 134–143.
Hao  H, Oliveira  CS, and Penzien  J (1989), Multiple-station ground motion processing and simulation based on SMART-1 array data, Nucl. Eng. Des. 111, 293–310.
Oliveira  CS, Hao  H, and Penzien  J (1991), Ground motion modeling for multiple-input structural analysis, Struct. Safety10, 79–93.
Claassen JP (1985), The estimation of seismic spatial coherence and its application to a regional event, Sandia National Lab Report SAND85-2093.
Abrahamson NA, Schneider JF, and Stepp JC (1990), Spatial variation of strong ground motion for use in soil-structure interaction analyses, Proc of 4th US-Natl Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Palm Springs CA, 317–326.
Riepl  J, Oliveira  CS, and Bard  PY (1997), Spatial coherence of seismic wave fields across an alluvial valley (weak motion), Journal of Seismology 1, 253–268.
Vernon  F, Fletcher  J, Carroll  L, Chave  A, and Sembera  E (1991), Coherence of seismic body waves as measured by a small aperture array, J. Geophys. Res. 96, 11981–11996.
Novak  M (1987) Discussion on Stochastic variation of earthquake ground motion in space and time by RS Harichandran and EH Vanmarcke, J. Eng. Mech. Div. 113, 1267–1270.
Toksöz  MN, Dainty  AM, and Charrette  EE (1991), Spatial variation of ground motion due to lateral heterogeneity, Struct. Safety 10, 53–77.
Steidl  JH, Tumarkin  AG, and Archuleta  RJ (1996), What is a reference site?, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 86, 1733–1748.
Cranswick  E (1988), The information content of high-frequency seismograms and the near-surface geologic structure of “hard rock” recording sites, Pure Appl. Geophys. 128, 333–363.
Menke  W, Lerner-Lam  AL, Dubendorff  B, and Pacheco  J (1990), Polarization and coherence of 5 to 30 Hz seismic wave fields at a hard rock site and their relevance to velocity heterogeneities in the crust, Bull. Seismol. Soc. Am. 80, 430–449.
Somerville PG, McLaren JP, Saikia CK, and Helmberger DV (1988), Site-specific estimation of spatial incoherence of strong ground motion, Earthquake Engineering and Soil Dynamics II-Recent Advances in Ground Motion Evaluation, JL Von Thun (ed), Geotechnical Special Pub No 20, ASCE, New York.
Luco  JE and Wong  HL (1986), Response of a rigid foundation to a spatially random ground motion, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn.14, 891–908.
Zerva  A (1992), Seismic ground motion simulations from a class of spatial variability models, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn.21, 351–361.
Zerva  A (1994), On the spatial variation of seismic ground motions and its effects on lifelines, Eng. Struct. 16, 534–546.
Zerva  A and Harada  T (1997), Effect of surface layer stochasticity on seismic ground motion coherence and strain estimates, Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng. 16, 445–457.
Zerva A, Ang AHS, and Wen YK (1985), Study of seismic ground motion for lifeline response analysis, Civil Engineering Studies, Structural Research Series No SRS-521, Univ of Illinois at Urbana- Champaign, Urbana IL.
Zerva  A, Ang  AHS, and Wen  YK (1987), Development of differential response spectra for lifeline seismic analysis, Probab. Eng. Mech. 1, 208–218.
Masri  SF (1976), Response of beams to propagating boundary excitation, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 4, 497–507.
Abdel-Ghaffar  AM and Rubin  LI (1982), Suspension bridge response to multiple support excitations, J. Eng. Mech. Div. 108, 419–435.
Abdel-Ghaffar  AM and Nazmy  AS (1991), 3D nonlinear seismic behavior of cable-stayed bridges, J. Struct. Eng. 117, 3456–3476.
Harichandran  RS and Wang  W (1988), Response of simple beam to spatially varying earthquake excitation, J. Eng. Mech. Div. 114, 1526–1541.
Harichandran  RS and Wang  W (1990), Response of indeterminate two-span beam to spatially varying earthquake excitation, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 19, 173–187.
Zerva  A (1988), Lifeline response to spatially variable ground motions, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 16, 361–379.
Zerva  A (1991), Effect of spatial variability and propagation of seismic ground motions on the response of multiply supported structures, Probab. Eng. Mech. 6, 212–221.
Harichandran  RS, Hawwari  A, and Sweidan  BN (1996), Response of long-span bridges to spatially varying ground motion, Journal of Structural Engineering 122, 476–484.
Monti  G, Nuti  C, and Pinto  PE (1996), Nonlinear response of bridges under multi-support excitation, Journal of Structural Engineering 122, 1147–1159.
Zerva  A and Zhang  O (1997), Correlation patterns in characteristics of spatially variable seismic ground motions, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 26, 19–39.
Rice  SO (1944), Mathematical analysis of random noise, Bell Syst. Tech. J. 23(3), 282–332, and 24 (1), 46–156.
Shinozuka  M (1972), Monte Carlo solution of structural dynamics, Comput. Struct. 2, 855–874.
Conte  JP, Pister  KS, and Mahin  SA (1992), Nonstationary ARMA modeling of seismic ground motions, Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng. 11, 411–426.
Ellis  GW and Cakmak  AS (1991), Time series modeling of strong ground motion from multiple event earthquakes, Soil Dyn. Earthquake Eng. 10, 42–54.
Kozin  F (1988), Auto-regressive moving-average models of earthquake records, Probab. Eng. Mech. 3, 58–63.
Mignolet  MP and Spanos  PD (1992), Simulation of homogeneous two-dimensional random fields: Part I—AR and ARMA models, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 59, 260–269.
Spanos  PD and Mignolet  MP (1992), Simulation of homogeneous two-dimensional random fields: Part II-MA and ARMA models, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 59, 270–277.
Fenton  GA and Vanmarcke  EH (1990), Simulations of random fields via local average subdivision, J. Eng. Mech. 116, 1733–1749.
Mantoglou A and Wilson JL (1981), Simulation of random fields with the turning bands method, Report No 264, Dept of Civil Engineering, MIT, Cambridge MA.
Gurley K and Kareem A (1994), On the analysis and simulation of random processes utilizing higher order spectra and wavelet transforms, Proc of 2nd Int Conf on Computational Stochastic Mechanics, Athens, Greece.
Zeldin  BA and Spanos  PD (1996), Random field representation and synthesis using wavelet bases, ASME J. Appl. Mech. 63, 946–952.
Der Kiureghian  A and Crempien  J (1989), An evolutionary model for earthquake ground motion, Struct. Safety 6, 235–246.
Grigoriu M, Ruiz SE, and Rosenblueth E (1988), Nonstationary models of seismic ground acceleration, Tech Report NCEER-88-0043, Natl Center for Earthquake Engineering Research, Buffalo NY.
Yeh  CH and Wen  YK (1990), Modeling of nonstationary ground motion and analysis of inelastic structural response, Struct. Safety 8, 281–298.
Zerva A and Katafygiotis LS (2000), Selection of simulation scheme for the nonlinear seismic response of spatial structures, Proc of 4th Int Colloquium on Computation of Shell and Spatial Structures, IASS- IACM 2000, Chania, Greece.
Katafygiotis LS, Zerva A, and Pachakis D (1999), An efficient approach for the simulation of spatially variable motions for the seismic response of lifelines, Proc of 13th ASCE Engineering Mechanics Conf, Baltimore MD.
Ramadan  O and Novak  M (1993), Simulation of spatially incoherent random ground motions, J. Eng. Mech. 119, 997–1016.
Ramadan  O and Novak  M (1994), Simulation of multidimensional anisotropic ground motions, J. Eng. Mech. 120, 1773–1785.
Spanos  PD and Zeldin  BA (1996), Efficient iterative ARMA approximation of multivariate random processes for structural dynamics applications, Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn. 25, 497–507.
Li  Y and Kareem  A (1991), Simulation of multivariate nonstationary random processes by FFT, J. Eng. Mech. 117, 1037–1058.
Li  Y and Kareem  A (1997), Simulation of multivariate nonstationary random processes: Hybrid DFT and digital filtering approach, J. Eng. Mech. 123, 1302–1310.
Jin  S, Lutes  LD, and Sarkani  S (1997), Efficient simulation of multidimensional random fields, J. Eng. Mech. 123, 1082–1089.
Vanmarcke  EH, Heredia-Zavoni  E, and Fenton  GA (1993), Conditional simulation of spatially correlated earthquake ground motion, J. Eng. Mech. 119, 2333–2352.
Abrahamson NA (1988), Spatial interpolation of array ground motions for engineering analysis, Proc of 9th World Conf on Earthquake Engineering, Tokyo, Japan.
Fenton  GA (1994), Error evaluation of three random-field generators, J. Eng. Mech. 120, 2478–2497.
Rice SO (1954), Mathematical analysis of random noise, Selected Papers on Noise and Stochastic Processes, N Wax (ed), Dover, NY, 133–294.
Shinozuka  M (1971), Simulation of multivariate and multidimensional random processes, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 49, 357–367.
Shinozuka  M and Jan  CM (1972), Digital simulation of random processes and its applications, J. Sound Vib. 25, 111–128.
Shinozuka M (1987), Stochastic fields and their digital simulation, Stochastic Methods in Structural Dynamics, GI Schuëller and M Shinozuka (eds), Martinus Nijhoff, Dordrecht, The Netherlands.
Shinozuka  M and Deodatis  G (1991), Simulation of stochastic processes by spectral representation, Appl. Mech. Rev. 44, 191–203.
Shinozuka  M and Deodatsi  G (1996), Simulation of multidimensional Gaussian stochastic fields by spectral representation, Appl. Mech. Rev. 49, 29–53.
Yang  JN (1972), Simulations of random envelope processes, J. Sound Vib. 25, 73–85.
Shinozuka M (1974), Digital simulation of random processes in engineering mechanics with the aid of FFT technique, Stochastic Problems in Mechanics, ST Ariaratnam and HHE Leipholz (eds), Univ of Waterloo Press.
Grigoriu  M (1993), On the spectral representation method in simulation, Probab. Eng. Mech. 8, 75–90.
Katafygiotis  LS, Zerva  A, and Malyarenko  AA (1999), Simulations of homogeneous and partially isotropic random fields, J. Eng. Mech. 125, 1180–1189.
Lutes  LD and Wang  J (1992), Simulation of improved Gaussian time history, J. Eng. Mech. 117, 218–224, and Discussion by Ditlevsen O, Closure by Authors, (1992), J. Eng. Mech., 118, 1276–1277.
Mignolet  MP and Harish  MV (1996), Comparison of some simulation algorithms on basis of distribution, J. Eng. Mech. 122, 172–176.
Deodatis  G (1996), Simulation of ergodic multivariate stochastic processes, J. Eng. Mech. 122, 778–787.
Jennings PC, Housner GW, and Tsai NC (1968), Simulated earthquake motions, Tech Report, Earthquake Engineering Research Laboratory, California Inst of Tech, Pasadena, CA.
Deodatis  G (1996), Non-stationary stochastic vector processes: seismic ground motion applications, Probab. Eng. Mech. 11, 149–168.
Gasparini D and Vanmarcke EH (1976), Simulated earthquake ground motions compatible with prescribed response spectra, Tech Report No R76-4, Dept of Civil Engineering, Massachusetts Inst of Tech, Cambridge MA.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of lagged coherency evaluated from recorded data at separation distances of 400m and 1000m for different smoothing windows
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of empirical coherency models based on SMART-1 data with frequency at separation distances of 100, 300, and 500 m, and on LSST data at separation distances of 50 and 100 m.
Grahic Jump Location
Variation of semi-empirical coherency models with frequency at separation distances of 100, 300, and 500 m
Grahic Jump Location
Quasi-static and dynamic response of lifelines subjected to seismic motions experiencing different degree of exponential decay in their lagged coherency
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of recorded and reconstructed strong S-wave motions in the N-S direction at the center and inner ring stations of the array for Event 5
Grahic Jump Location
Amplitude and phase variation of the motions at the center and inner ring stations
Grahic Jump Location
Amplitude and phase variation of the aligned motions at the center and inner ring stations
Grahic Jump Location
Amplitude and phase variation of the aligned motions at the center and middle ring stations
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of the common component amplitude and phase identified from the analysis of the inner and middle ring station aligned data
Grahic Jump Location
Differential amplitude and phase variability with respect to the common component of the center and inner ring station aligned motions; envelope functions containing the variability are drawn by eye
Grahic Jump Location
Differential amplitude and phase variability with respect to the common component of the center and middle ring station aligned motions; envelope functions containing the variability are drawn by eye
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of simulated time histories generated by means of the spectral representation method and the models of Harichandran and Vanmarcke (1986) and Luco and Wong (1986)
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of power (PSD) and cross (CSD) spectral estimates generated by the CDRA method with target ones
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of power (PSD) and cross (CSD) spectral estimates generated by the HOP method with target ones
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of mean amplitudes generated by the CDRA method with target ones
Grahic Jump Location
Comparison of mean amplitudes generated by the HOP method with target ones

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In