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REVIEW ARTICLES

Review of inverse analysis for indirect measurement of impact force

[+] Author and Article Information
Hirotsugu Inoue

Department of Mechanical and Control Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro, Tokyo 152-8552, Japan; inoueh@mep.titech.ac.jp

John J Harrigan, Stephen R Reid

Department of Mechanical Engineering, UMIST, PO Box 88, Manchester M60 1QD, United Kingdom; john.j.harrigan@umist.ac.uk, steve.reid@umist.ac.uk

Appl. Mech. Rev 54(6), 503-524 (Nov 01, 2001) (22 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1420194 History:
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
Topics: Force
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References

Figures

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Experimental setup in Wu et al. 8. (Reprinted with permission from the Society for Experimental Mechanics.)
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Impact force estimated from three strain records 8. (Reprinted with permission from the Society for Experimental Mechanics.)
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Impact forces estimated from each strain record 8. (Reprinted with permission from the Society for Experimental Mechanics.)
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Impact force estimated by: a) the conjugate gradient method (without non-negativity constraint) and b) the gradient projection method (with non-negativity constraint); the solid curves represent the forces measured directly by the impact hammer 9.
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Estimates of an impact force at various values of the rank; solid curve: estimated data, broken curve: directly measured data, dotted curve: calibration data 13. (Reprinted with permission from the Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers.)
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Impact on a steel plate with a steel rod 24.
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Impact force estimated from bending strain of the plate 24.
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Moduli of transfer functions for simple beam structures 21. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science.)
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Impact forces on the finite beam estimated from each record and from two records of responses 21. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science.)
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Longitudinal impact of a slender rod 31.
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Impact force estimated by: a) direct deconvolution and b) the Wiener filter 31.
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A back-propagation neural network for estimation of impact force 54. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science.)
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Impact force history estimated by a neural network 54. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science.)
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Impact of a rod with the hammer of the Charpy testing machine: calibration test 45.
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Results of the calibration test: a) impact force between the tup and the rod, b) strain response of the hammer (α: release angle of the hammer) 45.
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Strain responses of the hammer in the testing of PMMA specimen 45.
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Impact forces estimated by deconvolution 45.
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The load cell assembly used in the drop-hammer dynamic-compression test 48.
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Result of drop-hammer test on an American oak cylinder: before (left) and after (right) deconvolution 48.
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Result of drop-hammer test on a mild steel tube: before a) and after b) deconvolution 48.
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A simply supported beam subjected to two-dimensional impact force at the center of its span 61.
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The magnitude and direction of impact force estimated from a good pair of strain responses (e1(t) and e2(t)) (Ref. 61).
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The magnitude and direction of impact force estimated from a bad pair of strain responses (e1(t) and e3(t)) (Ref. 61).
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The condition numbers of the transfer function matrix at every frequencies for the good pair a) and the bad pair b) of strain responses 61.
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Locations of impact and strain gauges of a laminated plate 62. (Reprinted with permission from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.)
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Three impact forces estimated from strain responses and measured by impact hammers 62. (Reprinted with permission from the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics.)
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Acceleration response at a location away from the impact location for Hertzian impact of an infinite beam 35. (Reprinted with permission from the Academic Press.)
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The effect of small errors in distance on the estimate of the time history by deconvolution: a) underestimation of distance, b) correct estimation of distance and c) overestimation of distance 35. (Reprinted with permission from the Academic Press.)
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Effect of error in the guess of the impact location on the estimates of the time history 65. (Reprinted with permission from the Society for Experimental Mechanics.)
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Correlation between two estimates of the time history as a function of guessed impact location 65. (Reprinted with permission from the Society for Experimental Mechanics.)
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Convergence of population over the generations 65. (Reprinted with permission from the Society for Experimental Mechanics.)
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Arrangement of sensors for estimating the wave velocity and the impact location 67. (Reprinted with permission from the Society for Experimental Mechanics.)
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The group velocity and impact location estimated by a time-frequency analysis by means of wavelet transform 67. (Reprinted with permission from the Society for Experimental Mechanics.)
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Schematic of the procedure for grid point generation 44.
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Comparisons of the identified and the true impact locations for the eight examples using a hammer as the impactor. Arrangement of the strain gages (G1, G2, G3) is also shown 9.
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Determination of an elliptic region containing the impact location 69. (Reprinted with permission from the Japan Society for Mechanical Engineers.)
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Distribution of the penalty quadratic form of the estimated time history 69. (Reprinted with permission from the Japan Society for Mechanical Engineers.)
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Schematic of ball drop test apparatus and test structure used for testing the force identification technique 71. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science.)
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Error plots resulting from pattern matching between the uncorrected modal constants and the database of modal constants using the magnitude and phase information in the acceleration signal 71. (Reprinted with permission from Elsevier Science.)

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