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REVIEW ARTICLES

Coupled deformation-diffusion effects in the mechanics of faulting and failure of geomaterials

[+] Author and Article Information
JW Rudnicki

Department of Civil Engineering, Northwestern University, 2145 Sheridan Rd, Evanston IL 60208-3109; jwrudn@northwestern.edu

Appl. Mech. Rev 54(6), 483-502 (Nov 01, 2001) (20 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1410935 History:
Copyright © 2001 by ASME
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Figures

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Schematic illustration of an element of porous material connected to an imagined reservoir of homogeneous pore fluid
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Shear dislocation corresponding to a discontinuity bx in ux on y=0,x<0; Plane y=0 may be permeable (p=0) or impermeable (∂p/∂y=0)
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Contours of pore pressure in the nondimensional form (37) induced by a shear dislocation on permeable (solid) and impermeable (dashed) plane; contours are for a fixed time not equal to zero
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Time variation of the shear stress induced by a shear dislocation on a permeable and impermeable plane
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Pore pressure gradient (proportional to negative of fluid mass flux) on y=0 in the y direction for a shear dislocation on a permeable plane and in x direction for a shear dislocation on an impermeable plane
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Pore pressure (in nondimensional form) induced on an impermeable plane y=0 by a shear dislocation and an opening dislocation. The pore pressure is continuous across y=0 for the opening dislocation but discontinous for the shear dislocation. Values on y=0 for the shear dislocation are equal magnitude and opposite in sign to those shown.
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Pore pressure (in nondimensional form) vs the non-dimensional time V2t/c for dislocations moving steadily on permeable (dashed) and impermeable (solid) planes
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Contours of nondimensional pore pressure for a shear dislocation moving steadily on a permeable plane
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Contours of nondimensional pore pressure for a shear dislocation moving steadily on an impermeable plane
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The functions g (49) for the shear stress on y=0 for a shear dislocation moving steadily on a permeable and an impereable plane
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Schematic illustration of the position of the Middle Mountain water well and creepmeters near the San Andreas fault near Parkfield, California. The inset shows the predicted pressure changes (divided by the instantaneous change) against 4ct/(460  m)2.
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Slip distribution created by two dislocations of opposite sign at x=±L and the ramp time function used by Rudnicki and Hsu 59 to analyze pore pressure changes due to slip
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Cartoon illustrating that the stationary dislocation with a ramp time function used by 59 and the steady-state solutions used by 43 can be interpreted as limiting cases of 3D solutions
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Pore pressure, divided by Q0c/πdρ0κ, due to an instantaneous injection of fluid mass per unit area Q0 at a depth d. Curves compare the solution for the halfspace (solid) at three different depths with the full space solution (dashed) at the same distance from the source.
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Idealizations of a propagating shear fault: a) Finite length fault loaded in the farfield with a uniform shear stress τ and having a uniform resistive friction stress τf.b) Stress difference τ−τf is applied a distance l behind the edge of a semi-infinite fault in order to simulate a finite fault.
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Curves of Gnom/Gcrit against Vl/c for four values of the ratio (1−ν)/(1−νu). For large values of Vl/c,Gnom/Gcrit approaches the square of this ratio. Dashed curves are for permeable and solid for impermeable.
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Sketch illustrating the cohesive zone model a) used by 53 and the shear stress versus slip relation b)
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Variation of strain state with aspect ratio and mismatch of shear modulus for pressure changes
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Maximum values of ζ for which pressure decreases cause the stress state to move away from a Mohr-Coulomb failure with slope tan ϕ, with ϕ=25°; plot is for ν=0.2.
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Sketch of a spherical cavity in an infinite poroelastic solid. Cavity boundary is loaded by a traction derived from a uniform deviatoric stress, Sij,Skk=0. Cavity boundary is either permeable (p=0) or impermeable (∂p/∂n=0).
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Time dependence of the boundary shear strain for uniform shear stress applied to a spherical cavity

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