Due to their special characteristics, piezoelectric materials can be used in distributed behavior sensing and control of flexible structures. These materials are usually incorporated with the precision sensing and control of highly adaptive intelligent structures. Many theoretical, numerical, and experimental research activities treating piezoelectricity in sensing and control of various flexible structures have been carried out over the last decade. This survey article aims at collecting the recent research studies in this important field. It contains 336 references which are classified according to their applications. A brief theory and history of piezoelectricity is also presented.