Models of widely differing complexity have been used in recent years to quantify sediment transport processes for engineering applications. This paper presents a review of these model types, from simple eddy viscosity models involving the “passive scalar hypothesis” for sediment predication, to complex two-phase flow models. The specific points addressed in this review include, for the suspension layer, the bottom boundary conditions, the relationship between the turbulent eddy viscosity and particle diffusivity, the damping of turbulence by vertical gradients in suspended sediment concentration, and hindered settling. For the high-concentration near-bed layer, the modeling of particle interactions is discussed mainly with reference to two-phase flow models. The paper concludes with a comparison between the predictions of both a classical, one-equation, turbulence k-model and a two-phase flow model, with “starved bed” experimental data sets obtained in steady, open-channel flow.